1.  What observations did Salima make?
Ans:  Salima observed that there is a close relationship between height of land and the types of vegetation. Climate changes with the increase in height. Climate changes natural vegetation. Vegetation depends on temperature , moisture and slope and thickness of soil.

2.  How is natural vegetation classified?
Natural vegetation is classified into three  broad categories are :
Forests — grow in regions of high temperature and rain.
Grasslands— grow in regions of moderate rainfall.
Thorny shrubs and scrubs — grow in dry regions .

3.  State the difference between Tropical Evergreen forests and Tropical Deciduous Forests.

Tropical  Evergreen Forests                                Tropical deciduous forests

i) They are also called tropical rain forests               i) They are also called monsoonal forests .

ii)These regions are hot with heavy                          ii) These regions are seasonal changes .

iii) The leaves are green always.                               iii) They shed their leaves in the dry season.

iv)Rosewood, ebony mahogany are                         iv) Teak, neem and shisham trees grow here.
Some trees  found here.                                              Their wood is used to make furniture.

4.  Fill in the blanks about the special features of temperate evergreen forests and the temperate deciduous forests.

Temperate evergreen forests:

1)  The temperate evergreen forests are located in the mid-latitudinal coastal

2)  They are found along the eastern side of the continents.

3)  They have both hard and soft  wood trees.

Temperate deciduous forests:

1)  The temperate deciduous forests are found as we go towards higher latitudes.

2)  They shed their leaves in the dry season.

3)  The common trees found here are oak and beech.

5.  Write a short note on:

1)  Mediterranean vegetation: 
-Mediterranean vegetation are found in the west and south west margins of the continents. They have hot and dry summers and mild rainy winters.  Citrus fruits like oranges, olives , figs and grapes are grown here as the people have removed the natural vegetation to grow fruits. Not much wildlife is here.

2)  Coniferous forests:
-Coniferous forests are found in the higher altitudes. They are also called Taiga.. The trees are tall, softwood  evergreen trees. The wood is used to make pulp to make paper. Pine and cedar are the important trees found here. Silver fox and polar bear are some common animals here.

6.  Match the regions with the names of the grasslands there:

Regions Names of grasslands 

1)  East Africa                a) Llanos.

2)  Brazil                         b) Down

3)  Venezuela                 c) Steppe

4)  Argentina                 d) Veld

5)  North America        e) Campos

6)  South Africa            f) Savannah

7)  Central Asia             g) Prairie

8)  Australia                  h) Pampas


1)  East Africa             —-  (f)  Savannah

2)  Brazil                      —-  (e)  Campos

3)  Venezuela              —-  (a)  Llanos

4)  Argentina              —-  (h)  Pampas

5)  North America     —-  (g)  Prairie

6)  South Africa         —-  (d)  Veld

7)  Central Asia          —-  (c)  Steppe

8)  Australia               —-  (b)  Down.