1.
(a). What are the problems in composite fishing.
Ans: The major problem in composite fishing is the difficulty in getting good quality seeds for fish farming. The fish seed is not purely of one species but is also mixed with other species.
(b). How are the problems overcome.
Ans: This problem is overcome by breeding fish in a pond using hormonal stimulation. This ensures pure seeds of a particular species.

2.
(a). What do you mean by sustainable practices in agriculture.
Ans: Sustainable agricultural practices are the agricultural practices which enhance the quality of the environment and conserve natural resources.
(b). What are the measures undertaken for sustainable practices in agriculture.
Ans: For this purpose, minimum amount of chemical fertilisers and pesticides are used and there is maximum use of organic manures, bio-fertilisers, and bio-pesticides. Other preventive methods like intercropping, and crop rotation are also practised.

3. Some time ago, the Government of Goa announced the 'Kamdhenu' under this scheme an individual was eligible to get a loan and a subsidy to buy dairy animals
(a). What are the objectives of the scheme.
Ans: To increase milk production and offer self-employment/additional income to agriculturists.
(b). What breed of dairy animals would meet the objectives
Ans: A cross breed which has longer lactation period and resistance to diseases.

4. Describe the ways of incorporating desirable characteristics into a crop.
Ans: The ways of incorporating desirable characteristics into a crop are
(i) Hybridisation: is a crossing between genetically dissimilar plants. The crossing may be inter varietal i.e. between different varieties, inter specific i.e. between two different species of the same genus or inter generic i.e. between two different genera.
(ii) Introducing a gene: A gene responsible for the desired characteristics is introduced.

5. Organic farming is a farming system with minimal use or no use of chemicals as fertilisers.
(a). What substitute is used instead of chemical fertilisers in organic farming.
Ans: In place of chemical fertilisers, organic manures, recycled farm wastes, and so on, are used.
(b). What are the disadvantages of long term use of chemical fertilisers.
Ans: Continuous use of fertilisers can destroy the fertility of the soil because they do not replenish the organic matter of the soil. Secondly they harm the micro-organisms present in the soil.
(c) Name the bio-pesticides used in organic farming.
Ans: Neem leaves and turmeric are used as bio-pesticides in organic farming

6. Enlist any three advantages of using manure.
Ans: The advantages of using manures are: They enrich the soil with nutrients and organic matter and increase its fertility. The organic matter supplied by the manure increases the soil
structure. They increase the water holding capacity of sandy soils avoid water logging in clayey soils. They protect the environment since they are prepared by recycling biological or farm waste. They avoid the damage that would have been caused to the soil and water if fertilisers were used instead.

7. Describe any three factors for which the variety improvement is done in crops.
Ans: The factors for which variety improvement is done are:
Higher yield: to increase the yield per acre. Improved quality: It differs from crop to crop depending upon its use. The quality should be such that its use should be optimum. Biotic and abiotic resistance: The variety should be resistant to biotic factors like diseases, insects, nematodes, and abiotic factors like drought, salinity, water logging, heat, cold and frost. Change in maturity duration: Maturity duration should be short so that the farmer should be able to grow multiple rounds of crops and reduce the cost of production of the crop. Wider adaptability: A variety that is developed should be able to grow in different climatic conditions prevailing in different areas.
Desirable agronomic characteristics: For higher productivity the crops should have desired agronomic characteristics like tallness and profuse branching in fodder crops, dwarfness in cereals, and so on.

8. In Goa, the harvesting of the rice crop is usually over by October, in rain fed areas. After harvesting the rice crop, in some parts, where there is moisture in the soil, the farmers cultivate beans.
(a). What season crop is rice
Ans: Kharif season crop.
(b). What season crop is beans.
Ans: Rabi season crop.
(c). What type of cropping pattern is practised by the farmers
Ans: Crop rotation.
(d). What is the advantage of cultivating beans.
Ans: Bean is a leguminous crop. It enriches the soil with nitrogen Compounds.

9. Mahabaleshwar is a famous hill station in the Western Ghats in Maharashtra. It is close to Pune. It is also famous for its honey. Honey of different tastes is available there in different seasons.

(a). What factors make Mahabaleshwar famous for honey.
Ans: The Western Ghats is very rich in vegetation. Naturally, bees have abundant pasturage or flowers for collection of nectar. This makes Mahabaleshwar famous for honey.
(b). Why is honey of different tastes available there in different seasons.
Ans: The taste of honey depends upon the type of flowers available to bees for collection of nectar. The flower availability depends upon the season. Hence the taste of honey is different in different seasons.
(c). Though the city Pune is close to Mahabaleshwar, it is not famous for honey. Why.
Ans: Pune is a city situated on the plateau, not having a rich vegetation. Hence Pune is not famous for honey.
(d). In which areas of Goa, is there a good scope for bee-keeping.
Ans: In talukas like Sanguem, and Sattari, which include parts of the Western Ghats, there is a good scope for bee-keeping due to the rich and diverse vegetation.