1.2   Text Questions :

1.  Development of a country can generally determine by __________ .

i) Its per capita income                                ii) Its average literacy level
iii) Health status of its people                    iv) All of the above.

Ans:  All of the above

2.  Which of the following neighbouring countries has a better performance than India in terms of human development?

i) Bangladesh                         ii) Sri Lanka                           iii) Nepal                     iv) Pakistan

Ans:  ii) Sri Lanka

3.  Assume there are four families in a country. The per capita income of these families is Rs.5, 000. If the income of three families is Rs.4000, Rs. 7,000 and Rs. 3,000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?

i) Rs. 7,500                       ii) Rs. 3000                            iii) Rs. 2000                     iv) Rs. 6,000

Ans:  iv) 6,000

Solution :

Suppose that the income of the fourth family =

Per capita income    =   Total income of a country
its population

∴ Rs. 5,000  =  Rs. (4,000 +7,000+3,000) + X
4 (Four families)

∴ Rs. 5,000   =  Rs.14,000 + X
4

Rs. 14,000 + X  =   Rs. 20,000

X     =   Rs. 20,000 – Rs. 14,000

=   Rs. 6,000    .

4.  What is the main criterion used by the World bank in Classifying different countries? What are the limitations of this criterion, if any?
Ans:

The average income, i.e. per capita income is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries.
According to the World development Report 2006, published by the World Bank, countries with per capita income of $10, 66 per annum and above in 2004 are called rich or developed countries. On the other hand, countries with per capita income of$ 825 or less are called as income countries.

Limitation: The per capita income does not tell us how this income is distributed among people.

5.  In what respect is the criterion used by the UNDP for measuring development different from one used by the World Bank?
Ans:
The criterion used by UNDP for measuring development is different from the one used by the World Bank in the following ways:

The World Bank: This uses per capita income as the criterion for measuring development. According to it, countries with per capita income of $10,66 per annum and above in 2004 are called rich countries and those with per capita income of$ 825 or less are called low income countries.

The UNDP : It uses Human Development Index (HDI) as the criterion for measuring development. The Human Development Report published by the UNDP compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status along with their per capita income. Thus the World Bank uses income as the criterion for measuring development while the UNDP uses health and education indicators also with income as a measure of development.

6.  Why do we use averages? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own examples related to development.
Ans:
Average is a single value which value which summarizes the mass of the data. Since countries have different populations, total income does not tell us what an average person is likely to earn. This is known by average income.

Yes, there are limitations to their use, like:
i) An average is influence by extreme values.
ii) An average may not give an idea about the formation of the series.
In other words, average income does not tell us how this income is distributed among people.

For example,
i) The per capita income of Bihar for 2002-03 is Rs. 5,700 while that of India for the same year is Rs. 11,013.

7.  Kerala, with a lower per capita income has a better human development ranking than Punjab. Hence, per capita income is not a useful criterion at all and should not be used to compare states. Do you agree? Discuss.
Ans:  No, I do not agree with the statement that per capita income is not a useful criterion at all. But, income is considered to be one of the most important criteria. This is because; more income means more of all things that human beings needed. The World Bank also uses per capita income as the criterion for measuring development. We can draw a following conclusions from the above fact:

i) The relationship between human development ranking and the per capita income does not show any correspondence.
ii) Money cannot buy all goods and services that we may need to live well. For example: money cannot buy a pollution free environment.

8.  Find out the sources of energy currently used by people in India. What could be the possibilities fifty years from now?
Ans:
The present sources of energy used by people of India are:

i) Conventional Sources:
i) Coal                           ii) Petroleum                            iii) Natural gas             iv) Electricity

ii) Non-conventional Sources:
i) Solar energy               ii) Wind energy                    iii) Biogas                       iv) Geothermal energy                     v) Tidal energy                          vi) Wave energy

The Possibility is that India would have to depend on electricity and non-conventional sources of energy. This is because; the world stock of crude oil would last only 43 years more if people continue to extract it at the present rate.

9.  Why is the issue of sustainability important for development?
Ans:
Sustainable for development or sustainable development refers to the development which should take place without damaging the environment and development in the present. Thus, the issue, of sustainability is important for development because:

i) Rapid economic growth and industrialization have led to reckless exploitation of natural resources.
ii) Though crude oil and minerals are essential for economic development, their use damages the environment and ecology. They cause pollution and disturb the ecological balance.

10.  “ The Earth has enough resources to meet the need of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person.” How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development? Discuss.
Ans:

i) Our Earth has enough non-renewable resources to meet our present and future needs for development if we use them in an economic manner.
ii) In developed countries, the major cause of worry is the wasteful consumption style of resources.
iii) In developing countries, the cause of worry is the increasing population.
iv) A lot of farming and excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides has led to over exploitation of land exploitation of land and water resources.
v) The present production technology pollutes the atmosphere and water bodies with garbage, litter, smoke and other poisonous gases.

11.  List a few examples of environmental degradation that you may have observed around you.
Ans:

There is a serious problem of land degradation and soil erosion around me. Nearly 53% of the total land area in India is suffering from serious degradation.

ii) Decline in groundwater: Groundwater is under serious threat of over use in many parts of the country.

iii) Deforestation: India’s forests changed into factories, residential and commercial buildings which produce more heat and noise pollution and bring about environmental degradation.

iv) Air pollution: Industrialization and urbanization has led to air pollution.

v) Water pollution: Water pollution is a result of discharge of untreated water from industry, domestic sewage and fertilizers or pesticides.

vi) Mining:Mining activities have been destroying land, water, forest and air which results in environmental degradation.

12.  For each of the item given in the table, find out which country is at the top and which is at the bottom.
Ans: According to the table, we can draw the following conclusion:
i) In terms of per capita income, Sri Lanka with US $4390 is at top while Myanmar with US$ 1027 is at the bottom.
ii) In life expectancy, again Sri Lanka with 74 years is at the top whereas Myanmar with 61 is at the bottom.
iii) On the basis of literacy rate for the 15 + age population, Sri Lanka with 91 is at the top while Bangladesh is at the bottom.
iv) In gross Enrollment ratio for three levels, Sri Lanka is at again at the top while Pakistan is at the bottom.
v) In terms of HD rank in the world, Sri Lanka is at the top whereas Nepal is at the bottom.

13.  The following table shows the proportion of under nourished adults in India. It is based on a survey of various states for the year 2001. Look at the table and answer the following questions:

 State Males   (%) Females   (%) Kerala Karnataka Madhya Pradesh 22 36 43 19 38 42 All States 37 36

i) Compare the nutritional level of people in Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.
Ans: According to the table, the nutritional level of people in Kerala is 79.5% while that of people in Madhya Pradesh is 57.5%.

ii) Can you guess why around 40 per cent of the people in the country are undernourished even though it is argued that there is enough food in the country? Describe in your words.
Ans:

a) It is the failure of our Public Distribution System. The ration shop dealers sell poor quality grains in ration shops.
b) The dealers are generally found resorting to malpractices like diverting the grains to the open market to get better margin.
c) So, the poor have to depend on markets rather than the ration shops for their food needs.