I. Answer the following questions in one sentence each:
1. How is consensus available in modern countries?
Ans: In modern countries consensus is usually available in written form.
2. What makes one society different from one another?
Ans: Society has a constitutive rules that makes it what it is and differentiate it from other societies.
3. What is constitution?
Ans: A constitution is a written document which serves as a set of rules and principles that all persons in a country can agree upon as the basis of the way in which they want the country to be governed.
4. What did the previous constitution of Nepal adopt in 1990?
Ans: The constitution of Nepal adopted in 1990 reflected the fact that the final authority rested with the king.
5. Why did the people of Nepal wish to write a new constitution?
Ans: In 2006 Nepal moved from monarchy to a democratic form of government and reflect ideals of the country as they want.
6. Why did people from Nepal did not want to continue monarchy rule?
Ans: The people from Nepal did not want to continue monarchy rule because it did not reflect the ideals of the country that they want Nepal to be, and that they have fought for.
7. What alongside elaborates Nepal’s struggle for democracy?
Ans: By moving from monarchy to a democratic form of government, Nepal needs to change all its constitutive rules in order to usher in a new society.That’s why people of Nepal are in the process of writing new constitution .This elaborates the struggle.
8. How does constitution govern in decision making within societies?
Ans: In countries that have adopted a democratic form of government or polity, the constitution plays a crucial role in laying important guidelines that govern decision- making within these societies.
9. What does Indian constitution guarantees under the right to Equality?
Ans: The Indian constitution guarantees the right to equality to all persons and says that no citizen can be discriminated against on grounds of religion ,race, caste,gender and place of birth.
10. What is meant by Inter- community domination?
Ans: When majority community dominates minority is referred to as Inter-community domination.
11. What is meant by Intra – community domination?
Ans: Intra – community domination means one community dominating another or members of one community dominating others within same community.
12. Why is every society prone to this tyranny of the majority?
Ans: In democratic societies,majority can continuously enforce decisions that exclude minorities and go against their interest .Hence every society is prone to this tyranny of the majority.
13. How does constitution help in removing adverse effect on the larger principles that people believe?
Ans: The constitution helps to protect us against certain decisions which might have an adverse effect on the larger principles, it is possible that many people in democracy may strongly feel that party politics has become so dangerous that we need a strong dictator.
14. How many members were included in constituent assembly?
Ans: This was done by a group of around 300 people who become members of the constituent assembly in 1946.
15. What are the key features of the Indian constitution?
Ans: The key features of the Indian constitution are:
ii) Parliamentary form of government
iii) Separation of powers
iv) Fundamental rights
16. What do you understand by the term Federalism?
Ans: This refers to the existence of more than one level of government in the country.In India, we have government at the state level and at the centre Panchayati Raj is the third tier of government in India.
17. Name the organs of the state?
Ans: The three organs of the state are:
i) The legislature
ii) The Executive and
iii) The judiciary
18. How does Fundamental rights guide the citizens?
Ans: Fundamental rights protect citizens against the arbitrary and absolute exercise of power by the state .The constitution does guarantees the rights of individual against the state as well as against other individuals.
19. Why does the constitution has Directive principles of state policy along with Fundamental rights.
Ans: This section was designed by the members of the constituent assembly to ensure greater social and economic reform, and serve as a guide to the independent Indian state to institute laws and policies that help to reduce the poverty of the masses.
20. What do you mean by Secularism?
Ans: A Secular state is one in which the state does not officially promote any one religion as the state religion.
21. What had created a certain suspicion of the state in the minds of the nationalists?
Ans: The colonial rule had created a certain suspicion of the state in the minds of the nationalists.
22. Which right protects citizens against the arbitrary and absolute exercise of power by the state?
Ans: The fundamental rights protects citizens against the arbitrary and absolute exercise of power by the state.
II. Answer the following questions in four sentences:
1. What purpose does the constitution serve? OR What functions does the constitution play in democratic society?
(a) The constitution often lays down rules and regulations that guard against the misuse of power by political or any other parties
(b)The constitution defines the countries political system .
(c)The constitution also tries to find out that and protect minority groups from dominance done by other groups (majority) .
(d)The constitution is needed to protect ourselves from others.
2. How can misuse of authority result in gross injustice in democracy?
(a) In a democracy we choose our leaders so that they can exercise power responsibly on our behalf
(b)There is a possibility that these leaders might misuse their authority and the constitution usually provides safeguards against this .
(c) The misuse o authority an result in gross injustice .
3. What is the importance of the “Right to Equality”?
(a) The Indian constitution guarantees the rights to equality to all persons and says that no citizen can be discriminated against grounds of religion , race, caste, gender and place of birth.
(b) The right to Equality is one of the fundamental rights guaranteed by the constitution.
4. What problems were faced by members of the drafting committee while drafting the constitution of India?
a) The members of the constituent assembly had a huge task before them, since the country was made up of several different languages, belong to different religions, and had distinct cultures.
b) When the constitution was being written, India was going through considerable turmoil.
c) The partition of the country into India and Pakistan was imminent; some of the princely states remained undecided about the future.
d) The social-economic condition of the vast masses of people appeared dismal.
5. What are the objectives of the fundamental rights?
Ans: The following are the objectives of the fundamental rights:
a) Every citizen must be able to claim fundamental rights.
b) Those rights must be binding upon every authority that has the power to make laws.
6. Briefly explain Parliamentary form of government.
Ans: The constitution of India guarantees universal adult suffrage for all citizens. When they were making the constitution, the members of the constituent assembly felt that the freedom struggle had prepared the masses for universal adult suffrage and that this would help encourage a democratic mindset and break the clutches of traditional caste, class and gender hierarchies .This also means that the people of India have a direct role in electing their representatives.
7. How are the rules formulated in a large society?
i) In large societies in which different communities of people live together, the rules are formulated through consensus .
ii) In modern countries this consensus is available in written form.
8. What did the long experience of authoritarian rule under a colonial state convince the Indians?
i) The long experience of authoritarian rule under a colonial state convinced the Indians that free India should be a democracy which everyone should be treated equally and,
ii) Everyone should be allowed to participate in the government
9. What problems were faced by the members of the drafting committee face while drafting the constitution of India?
a) The country is made up of several different communities which spoke different languages, belonged to different languages, different religions, and had different cultures.
b) When the constitution was being written, India was going through considerable turmoil.
c) The partition of the country into India and Pakistan was imminent .
d) Some princely states remained undecided about their future.
10. How does the constitution guarantee the rights of individuals?
i) The colonial rule had created suspicion of the state in the minds of the nationalists
ii) The nationalists wanted to ensure that a set of written rights would guard against the misuse of state power in independent India.
iii) The fundamental rights protect citizens against the arbitrary and absolute exercise of power of the state.