2.2  Text Questions :

I.   Answer the following questions :

1.  Which are the two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation.
Ans: Temperature and rainfall are two main climatic factors responsible for soil formation. Rainfall breaks the rocks by applying pressure. Temperature changes ranging between hot and cold also form cracks in the rocks.

2.  Write any two reasons of land degradation today.
Reasons for land degradation are:
i) Ever growing demand of the growing population.
ii) Destruction of the forest cover.

3.  Why is land considered an important resource.
Land is important resource because it provides an area for agriculture, forests, industries, constructions.life, etc. all these activities take place on land only.

4.  Name any two steps that government has taken to conserve plants and animals.
Steps taken by government include establishment of natural parks and wildlife sanctuaries in different parts of India. Their main aim  is conservation of vegetation and wildlife.

5.  Suggest three ways to conserve water.

a) Rainwater harvesting is a method of collecting water when it rains so that it may  be of  use in the future.
b) The canals used for irrigation should be properly built so that there is no loss of water while water is transported to the fields.
c) Drip or some similar type of irrigation is suggested in the drier areas.

II.  Tick the correct answers :

i) Which of the following is not a factor of soil formation.
a) Time                         b) Soil Texture √             c) Organic matter

ii) Which of the following methods is most appropriate to check soil erosion on steep slopes.
a) Shelter belts           b) Mulching                      c) Terrace cultivation √

iii) Which one of the following methods is not in favor of the conservation of nature.
a) Switch off the bulb when not in use                b) Close the tap after using.
c) Dispose poly packs after shopping  √

III.  Match the following:

i) Land use                         a) Prevent Soil erosion
ii) Humus                           b) Land suitable for agriculture
iii) Rocks dams                 c) Productive use of land
iv) Arable land                  d) Organic matter deposited on top soil.
e) Contour Ploughing

i) Land use                             a) Productive use of land
ii) Humus                               b) Organic matter deposited on top soil.
iii) Rocks dams                     c) Prevent soil erosion
iv) Arable land                      d) Land suitable for agriculture

IV.  State whether the given statements is true or false. If true, write the reasons:

1.  Ganga- Brahmaputra plain of India is an overpopulated region.
2.  Water availability per person in India is declining.
3.  Rows of trees planted in the coastal areas to check the wind movement is called Inter cropping.
4.  Human interference and changes of climate can maintain the ecosystem.

Answers :
1.  True – because it has a highly fertile soil and even topography .
2.  True –because the population is growing but the availability of water is declining.
3.  False                                          4.  False.

V.  Study the given table and answer the following questions:

i) The countries with the highest use of land under cropland, forest, pasture and other uses are as under
Cropland : India (57%), Forest : Japan (67%), Pasture : Australia (56%), Other uses : Canada (52%)  .

ii) The land use pattern of these areas affects the economic activities of these countries in the sense that people and their demands are ever growing but availability of land is limited. Similarly the quality of land is also different from one place to another. These common lands are being encroached by people for the purpose of building up commercial areas and housing complexes in the urban areas in order to expand the agricultural land. It also affects the social culture.