1. List the different types of religious practices that you find in your neighbourhood. This could be different forms of prayer ,worship of different gods, sacred sites, different kinds of religious music, singing, and so on. Does this indicate freedom of religious practice.
Yes, there are different types of religious practices that are found in our neighbourhood area that is mode of offering prayers or puja to God or Goddesses or prophets, lighting of diya’s or candles and so on. All these indicate freedom of religious practice. India is a secular country. The constitution of India gives freedom to practice and follow any religion and equality to all its citizens. No one can be discriminated on the grounds of their religion and belief. Everyone is free to worship any god in any manner he or she likes.
2. Will the government intervene if some religious group says that their religion allows them to practise infanticide? Give reasons for your answer.
Ans: Yes, the government will intervene if any religious group says that their religion allows them to practice infanticide. We can give the following reasons to support our answer:
a) No religion in the world allows anyone to kill an infant. In all religions non – violence is given the maximum importance. Jainism is the most vital religion following the principle of non-violence. Jesus Christ was himself the biggest symbol of love. Other religions also follow non-violence.
b) If infants or child is killed to please any god or goddess, it is nothing but a great crime. The system of sacrifice was promoted by selfish and religious leaders in ancient or medieval times.
3. Complete the following table:
|Objective||Why is this important?||Example of a violation of this objective|
|(i) One religious community does not dominate another.|
|(ii) The State does not enforce any particular religion nor take away the religious freedom of individuals.|
|(iii)That some members do not dominate other members of the same religious community.|
(i) Everyone should honour the country’s constitution which grants Right to Equality and Right to Freedom for all.
For example: In the United States of America most children in government schools have to begin their school day reciting the ‘Pledge of Allegiance’. This pledge includes the words ‘Under God’.
(ii) It is important for a secular state. It is essential that the state keeps itself away from religious matters. It does not force to follow any particular religion nor take away the religious freedom of individuals because the constitution of a secular country provides religious freedom as a Fundamental Right.
(iii) It is important to establish equality among the people of different castes and economic or social status of the religious community.
Example: Before India became a Republic, the upper caste of Hindus believed in untouchability. And they discriminated on the lower castes on the basis of caste.
4. Look up the annual calendar of holidays of your school. How many of them pertain to religion ?What does this indicate?
Ans: List of holidays (in the calendar year of 2020)
|January 14||Lohri||August 3||Raksha Bandhan|
|January 15||Pongal/Makar sankranti||August 11||Janmashtami|
|January 26||Republic day||August 15||Independence day|
|January 30||Basant panchami||August 22||Ganesh chaturthi|
|February 9||Guru Ravidas Jayanti||August 29||Muharram|
|February 21||Mahashivaratri||October 2||Gandhi Jayanti|
|March 10||Holi||October 25||Dussehra|
|March 25||Ugadi||October 29||Milab-ui-Nabi|
|April 2||Ram Navami||31 October||Balmiki jayanti|
|April 6||Mahavir jayanti||November 14||Diwali|
|April 10||Good Friday||November 15||Govardhan pooja|
|April 13||Baisakhi||November 16||Bhai dooj|
|April 14||Ambedkar Jayanti||November 30||Guru Nanak Jayanti|
|May 1||Labour day||December 25||Christmas day|
|May 7||Buddha poornima|
i) Holidays pertaining to Muslims:
(i)Id-ul-Zuha (ii) Moharram (iii) Milad-ul-Nabi (iv)Id-ul-Fitr (v)Id-ul-Zuha
ii) Holidays related with Hindus:
(i) Krishna Janmashtami (x) Holi
(ii) Pongal or Makar sankranti (xi) Ugadi
(iii) Basant Panchami (xii) Baisakhi
(iv) Ravi Dass Jayanti (xiii) Lohri
(v) Mahashivaratri (xiv) Dussehra
(vi) Raksha Bandhan (xv) Diwali
(vii) Ganesh Chaturthi (xvi) Ram Navami
(viii) Govardhan pooja (xvii) Bhaiya Dooj
(ix) Balmiki Jyanti
iii) Holidays pertaining to Christians:
(i)Good Friday (ii) Christmas day
iv) Holidays pertaining to Sikhs:
(i) Lohri (ii) Hola Mohalla(Holi and Dhulendi) (iii) Baisakhi (iv) Guru Nanak birthday
v) Holidays pertaining to Buddhists:
(i) Buddha Poornima
vi) Holidays pertaining to Jains :
(i) Mahavir Jayanti
Indication : The above division of the holidays pertaining to different religions is that:
i) India is a land of many religions and creeds.
ii) People celebrate various traditions and festivals on the specific occasions.
5. Find out some examples of different views within the same religion.
Ans: The other hindu’s followers also believe on such festivals.
i) People residing in Punjab and Delhi celebrate Lohri together.
ii) Pongal is celebrated by hindu’s in south India while Makar Sankranti is celebrated by hindu’s in North Goa.
iii) Mahashivratri is mainly celebrated by the followers of Lord Shiva.
iv) Krishna Janmashtami is celebrated mainly in Mathura, Vrindavan, Gujarat and other parts of India.
v) Ganesh Chaturthi is celebrated in many parts of India.
6. The Indian state ,both keeps away from religion as well as intervenes in religion.This idea can be quite confusing.Discuss this once again in the class using examples from the chapter as well as those that you might have come up with.
i) The Indian government at the centre as well as state level declares religious holidays. Any leader can join in as an individual.
ii) The head of the state, Prime Minister, President, Chief Ministers, opposition leaders, political parties and so on can convey their good wishes to the people of any religion on the occasion of religious festival.
iii) The Indian state also intervenes if some wrong religious practices are followed. And the Indian state is impartial.
7. The poster highlights the need for ‘Peace’. It says “ Peace is a never ending process”.It cannot ignore our difference or overlook our common interests”.Write in your own words what you think the above sentences are trying to convey?How does it relate to the need for religious tolerance?
-This chapter had three drawings on religious tolerance made by students of your age.Design your own poster on religious tolerance for your peers.
Peace is the way of life. Without peace it creates a mental and physical pressure. All the religion preaches peace, non-violence, humanity and brotherhood. Peace is for the requirement of common people. Hence terrorism is condemned by all of us.
The poster shows a chain of different religious monuments that is mosque, temple, church etc. Different people follow and believe different religion and practices as a result various festivals and traditions are found in India.