4.3   Additional Questions :

Answer the following questions :
1.  Name the types of farming practiced in India.
i) Primitive Subsistence Farming.
ii) Intensive Subsistence Farming.
iii) Commercial Farming.

2.  Name the cropping seasons in India.
i) Rabi Crops                              ii) Kharif season                      iii) Zaid season

3.  What is Plantation Agriculture?
It is a large scale one – crop farming resembling factory production.

4.  What is Zaid season?
The season in between the Rabi season and the Kharif season during which fodder crops are grown is called Zaid season.

5.  Why are pulses generally grown in rotation with other crops?
Ans: Being the leguminous crops, pulses help in restoring the fertility of the soil by fixing nitrogen from the air.

6.  Why is tea processed within the tea gardens?
This helps in retaining its freshness.

7.  Why is rubber mainly grown in Kerala?
Rubber requires the moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200 cm and temperature of above 250C.

8.  What is meant by ‘Food Security’?
Every citizen should have access to food which provides the minimum nutritional level. This is known as ‘Food Security’.

9.  What is the primary objective of the Indian Food Security Policy?
The primary objective of the Indian Food security Policy is to ensure availability of food grains to the common people at an affordable price.

10.  What is the full form of FCI?
Food Corporation of India.

11.  What do you mean by ‘PDS’ or Public Distribution System?
The programme which provides food grains and other essential commodities at subsidized rates in rural and urban areas is known as ‘PDS’ or Public Distribution System.

12.  Write the Characteristics of :

i) Commercial Farming
ii) Jhumming Farming
i) Commercial Farming
a) It uses high doses of modern technology.
b) It is mainly done to obtain higher production.

ii) Jhumming Farming
a) It is also called slash and burn agriculture.
b) The farmers clear a patch of land and produces cereals and other foods crops to sustain himself and his family.
c) This type of farming is popular in the North-Eastern parts of India.

13.  Why does Assam grow tea?
Assam has the following conditions which are favourable for growing tea:
i) Deep, fertile and well – drained soils.
ii) Moist and warm climate with a lot of showers throughout the year.

14.  What are the climatic and soil requirements for the growth of wheat?

i) Wheat requires a cool growing season and bright sunshine at the time of ripening.
ii) It requires 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall evenly distributed over the growing season.

15.  Why is Deccan Plateau well known for cotton cultivation?

i) Cotton grows well in the drier parts of the black soils in the Deccan.
ii) It requires a high temperature, light rainfall, frost free days and bright sunshine for its growth.

16.  What are the climatic and soil requirements for the growth of Jute?

i) Jute grows well on the well-drained fertile soil in the flood plains where soils are renewed every year.
ii) It requires a high temperature during its growth.

17.  ‘The high MSP, subsidies  input and committed FCI Purchases’. How?

i) Wheat and paddy crops are being grown more for the MSP they get. (Examples: Punjab and Haryana)
ii) This has created a serious imbalance in inter-crop parities.

18.  Distinguish between commercial agriculture and plantation agriculture.
Ans :

Commercial Agriculture Plantation Agriculture
i) Crops are grown for trade and commerce on a large scale . i) Crops are grown singly on scientific and commercial lines .
ii) Scientific methods and techniques are used to obtain high yield . ii) Cheap labour , international trade is its chief characteristics .

19.  Distinguish between Kharif and rabi crops.
Ans :

                         Kharib Crop                           Rabi Crop
i) It begins with the onset of the monsoons in May . i) It begins with the withdrawal of the monsoons in October .
ii) Sowing of seeds is done in June or early July . ii) Sowing of seeds is done in October-November .
iii) Crops are harvested in September-October . iii) Crops are harvested in April-May .

 20.  Distinguish between tea and coffee cultivation.
Ans :

Tea Coffee
i) Tea is a plantation agriculture . i) Coffee is also a plantation agriculture .
ii) It is most important beverage crop of India . ii) It is the second most important beverage crop of India .
iii) Tea is a crop of hot and humid climate . iii) It requires a hot and humid climate .

21.  Distinguish between subsistence agriculture and commercial agriculture.

              Subsistence Farming                  Commercial Farming
i) The farmer and his family produce cereals for themselves and for the local market . i) Crops are grown on a large scale with a view to export them to other countries .
ii) It is practiced in thickly populated areas . ii) It is practiced in sparely populated areas .
iii) It is practiced in most parts of India even today . iii) This type of agriculture is mainly practiced in Gujarat , Punjab , Haryana and Maharashtra.

22.  Distinguish between marine fisheries and inland fisheries.
Ans :

                    Marine Fisheries                      Inland Fisheries
i) Fishing is done along the coastal areas . i) Fishing is done in rivers , ponds , lakes and reservoir .
ii) It is done on a large scale and scientific methods are used . ii) It is done by individuals and primitive methods are used .


23.  How can each district be made self-sufficient in food grain production? Mention any three points.
i) The government should provide proper agricultural infrastructure, and encourage the use of latest techniques in agriculture.
ii) Other food crops with better growth should be encouraged instead of concentrating only on the production of rice and wheat.
iii) Necessary infrastructure like irrigation, electricity and so on should be created.

24.  ‘Employment in agriculture is on the decrease in India’. What could be the reason?

i) Indian Farmers are facing a big problem from international competition.
ii) The government is reducing public investment in irrigation, power, and roads and so on.
iii) Subsidies on fertilizers are decreasing leading to increase in the cost of production.