1.  Match the followings :           

(a) Narmada Valley (1) The first big kingdom
(b) Magadha (2) Hunting and gathering
(c) Garo hills (3) Cities about 2500 years ago
(d) Indus and its tributaries (4) Early agriculture
(e) Ganga valley (5) The first cities

Answers :
(a) – (2),   (b) – (1),   (c) – (4),   (d) – (5),    (e) – (3)  .

2.  List one major difference between Manuscripts and Inscriptions.


 (1) Manuscripts are handwritten                             (1) Inscriptions are engraved form.

(2) These were written on palm leaf,                       (2) These were written on hard surfaces
Bark of a tree                                                                 such as stone or metal.

(3) It can be easily created                                         (3) It requires a lot of time and effort to  create it

(4) It has short lifetime, if it is not                           (4) It is engraved on the hard surface.
preserved properly.                                                      Hence, it has longer life.

(5) E.g :- Veda, Purana, works of                              (5) Ashoka inscriptions, Alahabad Pillar
Kalidasa, sangam literature,                                       Iron Pillar of Delhi, Dhaneswar
Arthshastra of Kautilya.                                               Khera Buddha image inscription.

3.  Return to Rasheeda’s question. Can you think of some answer to it.
Ans :  A possible answer to Rasheeda’s question is that one can know about the past by reading documents that were written long ago eg :- Manuscripts, Inscriptions and old object recovered from excavation.

4.  Make a list of all the objects that archaeologists may find.Which of these could be made of stone.
Ans : Objects that archaeologists may find are :
(1) Remains of buildings made of stone and bricks, paintings and sculpture.
(2) Tools, weapons, pots, pans, ornaments and coins.
(3) Bones – of animals, birds and fish.
(4) Manuscripts and Inscriptions.
The ones that could be made of stone are inscriptions remains of buildings, tools, weapons etc.

5.  Why do you think ordinary men and women did not generally keep records of  what they did.
Ans :  The ordinary men and women did not generally keep records of what they did because they weren’t doing any notable works. They were living their ordinary life and also because they lacked proper writing methods.

6.  Describe at least two ways in which you think the lives of kings would have been different from those of farmers.
Ans :  The two ways in which the lives of kings would have been different from those of farmers are :
(1) Farmers had to work in their field while king’s duty was to protect their citizen.
(2) Kings fought    battles and kept records of their victories.While farmers led their ordinary life and they didn’t keep any records.

7.  Find the word crafts persons on page 1. List at least five different crafts that you know about today.Are the craft person :- (a) men (b) women (c) both (men and women).
Ans :    Some of the  crafts person are :
(1) Scientists                      (2) Musicians                       (3) Artists
(4) Rulers                           (5) Merchants                      (6) Herders
(7) Actors                            (8) Architects                       (9) Sports person.
(10) Industrialists
Today both men and women are craft person, because in the life of Globalisation each and every one has equal rights to perform his or her best.

8.  What were the subjects on which books were written in the past. Which of these would you like to read.
Ans :  In the past a number of books dealt with all kinds of subjects these were :
(1) Religious beliefs and practices                          (2) The lives of king
(3) Medicine                                                                (4) Science
(5) Epics                                                                       (6) Plays / Dramas
(7) Poems
It would be really interesting to read the epics of the past. The Ramayana, The Mahabharata and the Upanishads are some of the religious epics of the past.