I.  Complete the following statements by selecting the correct alternative given below each statement:

(1) Merchants from Europe and Asia met to exchange their goods at Rome.

(a) Rome                                              (b) Venice
(c) Shanghai                                        (d) England

(2) The discovery of new lands was looked upon by the Christians Missionaries to spread Religion.

(a) Religion                                          (b) Trade
(c) Technology                                    (d) Education

(3) The first European country in the forefront of geographical discoveries was  Portugal.

(a)  France                                                 (b) England
(c)   Spain                                                  (d) Portugal

II.   Answer each of the following questions in one sentence:

(1) Why people were interested carrying out trade?
:  People were interested in carrying out trade because they earned huge profits by selling the goods from one country to another.

(2) Name the two commercial highways used by the people in the Medieval age?
Ans :
Mediterranean Sea and Baltic Sea were used as commercial highways by the people in the medieval age.

(3) What were the three main aims of the Portuguese traders?
Ans :
The three main aims of the Portuguese traders were goods, glory and gold.

(4) What did Bartholomew Dias name the tip of Africa in 1488?
Ans :
Bartholomew Dias named the tip of Africa the “Cape of Storms”, it was later named as “Cape of Good Hope”.

 (5) Where did Vasco Da Gama land on 17 May 1498?
Ans :
Vasco Da Gama landed in Calicut on 17 May 1498.

III.  Answer each of the following questions in two sentences:

(1)  How were the European traders informed about the wealth and riches of Eastern countries?
Ans :

(1) Through the records of the earlier traders.
(2) By witnessing the profits earned by the traders through their trading activities of goods sold  at high prices.

(2)  Why were the traders ready to take any amount of risks in the 13th century?
Ans :

(1) The precious stones that were brought by Marco Polo from China created a desire in the minds of the traders to accumulate a lot of wealth.
(2) The European traders had information about the wealth and riches of the  Eastern countries.

(3)  How were the European traders encouraged to find new sea routes?
Ans :

(1) Goods like Chinese silk, Indian cotton and precious stones, perfumes and other items like gems, dyes, scented wood etc. were always in demand in the European markets.
(2) The demands were increasing and greed for these goods among the rich sections of the European society encouraged the Europeans merchants to find the new sea routes to the East.

(4)  How was the Mariner’s Compass useful to the explorers?
Ans :

(1) It gave the navigator an idea about the direction in which they were sailing.
(2) It helped them to navigate in the deep ocean.

(5)  Why were the Portuguese explorers blessed to have Prince Henry as their ruler?
Ans :

(1) He had set up a school for the navigators.
(2) This school collected the services of the map makers and the ship designers and helped the navigators also.

IV.  Give reasons for each of the following sentences:

(1)  The rulers and traders provided financial and non –financial support to the explorers.
Ans :

(1) The rulers considered this as an opportunity to earn high incomes in terms of money and land
(2) This would bring new areas into their political supremacy.

(2)  Geographical explorations led to the emergence of absolute monarchies in Europe .
Ans :

(1)The middle classes needed the support of the rulers for their protection. So they helped the rulers with  finances o to fight against the nobles.
(2) This helped the monarchs to establish their political supremacy.

(3)  Geographical discoveries led to the Columbian system of exchange.
Ans :

(1) The ideas along with plants and animals of Europe and the New World were exchanged  with one another.
(2) The Europeans brought cattle, horses and sheep to the New World and from the New World in return received  silk, tobacco, spices and precious stones.

V.  Answer each of the following questions in four sentences:

(1)  Why were the land routes not beneficial to the traders?
(1) Travelling by  land routes took a lot of time as it took months to travel.
(2) The journey was full of risks of being attacked by the robbers.
(3) There were no proper lodging and boarding facilities during the night time.
(4) It was impossible to carry perishable goods for such long periods of time.

(2)  How were the native cultures replaced by western culture?
Ans :

(1) The geographical discoveries gave the west  a superior edge over the east.
(2) The western powers also considered themselves superior to the natives of Asia and Africa.
(3) They  themselves took the responsibility of civilizing the uncivilized population of the world.
(4)  For this process many of the the native cultures were replaced with the western culture.

(3)  How had geographical discoveries led to Colonialism and Imperialism?
Ans :

(1) A large number of Europeans immigrated to these territories and established their own colonies.
(2) They also established their political control over them and began ruling over them.
(3) They then  began exploiting the natives.
(4) After that they tried to exploit their economies to promote the interest of the country. 

(4)  What was the outcome of the enormous growth in commercial activities in Europe?
Ans :

(1) The enormous growth in commercial activities led to the creation of credit institutions, commercial banks and other such establishments.
(2) They increased taxes in the colonies but reduced the taxes for their own industries.
(3) The imperialist countries also passed the Navigation Acts with an intention of  developing the shipping industry.
(4)  The colonial trade  exploited the people  and it was one sided which led to the economic exploitation of the colonies.