(1)  Name the Indian goods that were always in demand in European markets during the Medieval age?
Ans : 
  Goods like Chinese silk, Indian cotton, precious stones, perfumes, gems, dyes, fragrant wood etc. were always in demand in European market.

(2)  Who invented the first printing press in Germany?
  John Guttenberg invented the first printing press in Germany.

(3)  What was termed as “White Man’s Burden “by the Western powers?
Ans : 
  The Western powers considered themselves to be superior to the natives of Asia and Africa and they took up on themselves the responsibility of “civilizing the uncivilized population of the world” which they termed as the “White Mans Burden”.

(4)  How were the European traders informed about the wealth and the riches of the Eastern countries?
Ans :

(1) The Europeans got the information of the wealth and riches of the Eastern countries through the records of the earlier traders.
(2) They saw the profits made by the traders through their trading activities of goods that were sold at high prices.

(5)  What evidence do you have of the existence of trade activities between the East and the West?
Ans :
   Roman coins have been found in excavations in the different countries like India. Information of trade between India and Mesopotamia has been recorded even as early as the Indus valley civilization in India.

(6)  Which were the two cities that were the important commercial cities that were used as commercial highways?
Ans :  
Genoa and Venice were the two cities that were used as commercial highways.

(7)  Why did people carry on trade since ancient time?
Ans :

(1) People traded since ancient time to exchange what they had in excess.
(2) And also traded for what they could not produce.

(8)  How did the geographical discoveries initiate at the beginning in the world of history?
Ans :

(1) It brought the world closer with the interaction of the people from the different countries.
(2) It led to the emergence of a modern world.

(9)  How did the geographical discoveries lead to the establishment of the Columbian system of exchange?
Ans :

(1) It was a system named after Columbus according to which plants, animals and ideas of Europe and the New World were exchanged with one another.
(2)The Europeans brought cattle, horses and sheep to the new world and from the new world they received tobacco, silk, spices and precious stones.

(10)  How did the geographical discoveries encourage maritime activities trade between the Europe and the East?
Ans :

(1)The European began to import spices, Indian textiles, and Persian carpets etc. from the East in huge quantities. They began to ship large quantities of fish, fur and timber from America.
(2) They also exported a good number of European manufactured goods to Asia, Africa and America where the European powers had set up their colonies.

(11)  How was the mariners compass useful to the explorers?
Ans :

(1)The mariners compass provided the navigators an idea about the directions in which they were sailing.
(2)It helped them to navigate properly in the deep ocean.

(12)  Why was Prince Henry given the title as “Henry the navigator?”or Why were the Portuguese explorer blessed to have Prince Henry as their ruler?
Ans :

(1) He had set up school for navigators.
(2) He collected the services of the map – makers and the ship designers and did everything to help them.

(13)  Why was the Navigation Act passed?
Ans :  
The Navigation Act was passed to develop the shipping industries.

(14)  What was the cause of conflict between the European countries and Northern America?
Ans :
  The cause of the conflict between the European countries in Northern America was about the possession of  their colonies there.

(15)  Which European countries established their colonies in Asia, America and Africa?
Ans :  
The Dutch, the Portuguese, the French and English.

(16)  Why was America named after Amerigo Vaspucci?
Ans :
   America was named after Amerigo  Vaspucci because he explored the interior regions of the continent.

(17)  Which event disrupted Europe’s trade with the East?
Ans :  
The capture of Constantinople the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire by the Ottoman Turks in 1453 disrupted Europe’s trade with the East.

(18)  Who received the trading rights from the ruler of Calicut?
Ans : 
 Vasco da gama.

(19)  Which event marked the beginning of European’s trade with India?
Ans : 
 The discovery of sea route to India by Vasco- da- gama  in the 1498 marked the beginning of the European trade with India.

(20)  Which Spanish navigator explored the discovery of America?
Ans :  
Christopher Columbus.

(21)  Why was the southern tip of Africa later called “Cape of Good Hope”?
Ans :  
The southern tip of Africa called “Cape of Good Hope” because it provided the hope to the navigator t0 trade further.

(22)  Which was the first exploration by the navigators of Portugal?
Ans :  
The first exploration undertaken by the navigators was the discovery of the west coast of Africa where many of islands were discovered.

Fill in the blanks:

(1)  Merchants from Europe and Asia met to exchange their goods at Genoa and Venice .

(2)  The discoveries of new land were looked upon by Christian Missionaries .

(3)  Trading activities was always a part of the human civilisation since the ancient period.

(4)  The Mediterranean sea and Baltic sea war used as commercial highways in the medieval ages .

(5)  One of the major routes used by the Arabs war silk route.

(6)  The Arab merchants carried out trade with far Eastern countries like China . 

(7)  During the ancient and the medieval period trade was carried out by  land route.

(8)  The Merchants hand book was written by Florentine.

(9) The capital of the Eastern Roman Empire was Constantinople.

(10)  God, Glory and Gold were the three aims of Portugal traders.

(11)  In 1488 Bartholomew Dias reached the Southern tip of Africa.