1.3  Additional Questions:

Answer the following questions :

1.  Why did the people of France break into number of government buildings
Ans: They broke into a number of government buildings in search of arms.

2.  On which day was the city of Paris in a state of alarm?
On 14 July 1789 .

3.  Why was the Bastille hated by the people?
They were hated because it stood for the despotic power of the king.

4.  Which king ascended to the throne of France in 1774?
The king Louis XVI of the Bourbon family.

5.  Which princess was did Louis XVI married to?
He was married to the Austrian princess Marie Antoinette.

6.  Who was the common enemy of France?
The common enemy of France was Britain.

7.  Why was the state forced to increase taxes?
The state forced to increase taxes in order to meet its regular expenses such as the cost of maintaining an army, the court and running government offices or universities.

8.  Into how many estates was the French society divided?
French society was divided into three estates:
i) 1st Estate – clergy                           ii) 2nd Estate – Nobility
iii) 3rd Estate – Big businessman, merchants, lawyers, peasants etc.

9.  Who enjoyed all the privillages?
The clergy and nobility enjoyed all the privileges.

10.  What is tithe?
A tithe is a tax levied  by the church where in one – tenth of the agricultural produce to be paid to the church.

11.  What is taille?
A taille is a tax to be paid directly to the state in France.

12.  Name three important French philosophers.
John Locke, Jean Jacque Rousseau .

13.  Name the book written by Rousseau?
The name of the book written by Rousseau was ‘ The Social Contract”.

14.  Which book was written by Montesquieu?
The name of the book written by   Montesquieu was ‘ The spirit of law.’

15.  What did Montesquieu proposed?
Separation of power within the government between the Legislature, Executive, Judiciary.

16.  What was estate general?
It was a political body to which the 3 estates sent their representatives.

17.  What did the members of the 3rd estate demand?
They demanded that each member should have one vote.

18.  Where did representative of the 3rd estate assembled after the king rejected their proposed and why?
They assembled in the hall of Indore tennis court in the grounds of versailers.

19.  What decree did the assembly passed August 1789?
Abolishing the feudal system of obligations and taxes.

20.  What was the main objective of the French constitutions?
To reduce the power of the Monarch.

21.  Who become the military director of France?
Napoleon Bonaparte became the military director of France.

22.  Why did Louis XVI find an empty treasury?

i) France spent money on many wars.
ii) The king had to maintain an extravagant court.

23.  What were peasants obliged to do?

i) To work in the houses  and the fields of the lords.
ii) To serve in the Army.
iii) To participate in the building of roads.

24.  What did the representatives of the 3rd estate do on the Tennis court?

i) They declared themselves as a National Assembly.
ii) They drafted a constitution limiting the powers of the king.

25.  Why did the National Assembly declare war on Austria and Prussia?

i) Neighbouring countries were worried about the development in France.
ii) They decided to send troops to help the king.

26.  What were the main demands of the France women.

i) They demanded their right to vote.
ii) And to be elected to the assembly.

27.  Why was France in a Financial grain before 1774.

i) France fought a long seven year war.
ii) France helped America in her war against Britain.
iii) The king put a uniform tax on all the landed property.
iv) Government had a lot of loans to pay.

28.  Describe the French society in 18th century.

i) Peasants made up 90% of the population.
ii) Land was owned by clergy, nobility and the richer members of the III estate.
iii) The first two estates enjoyed certain privileges.
iv) The III estate paid all the taxes and rendered services to the lords.

29.  Describe Robespierre’s Reign of Terror.

i) He followed the policy of severe control and punishment.
ii) Enemies of the republic were guillotined.
iii) Meat and bread were rationed and grains sold at government prices.
iv) Churches were converted in barracks and offices.

30.  What was the position of the French women before the revolution?

i) Most women of the 3rd estate had to work for a living.
ii) Some were employed as domestic servants in the houses of prosperous people.
iii) Most women had no access to education and job training.
iv) Their wages were less than those of men.

31.  What role did the philosophers play in the revolution?

i) Locke wrote against the divine rights of the king.
ii) Rousseau spoke about government by the people.
iii) Montesquieu proposed a division of powers within the government.
iv) They all believed in equality and freedom.