1.  Complete the sentences :

(a) Hunter – gatherers chose to live in caves and rock shelters because  they wanted to protect themselves   from wild animals and bad weather.        

(b) Grasslands developed around 12000  years ago.

(c) Early people painted on the walls of caves.

(d) In Hunsgi, tools were made of limestone.

2.  Look at the present day political map of the subcontinent on page 140 find out the states where :
Bhimbetka,Hunsgi and Kurnool are located.Would Tushar’s train have passed near any of these sites.

Ans :
Bhimbetka  –   Madhya Pradesh

Hunsgi         –  Karnataka

Kurnool       –  Andra Pradesh

Tushar’s train would have passed near Bhimbetka,Hunsgi and Kurnool as the they all lie on the train route from Delhi to Chennai.

3.  Why did the hunter – gatherers travel from place to place? In what ways are these similar to / different from the reason for which we travel today.
Ans :    Hunter – gatherers travel from place to place because :
(1) If they stayed in one place they would have exhausted all the plant and animal resources that were available there.
(2) Animals moved in search of food and so those who hunted them down had to follow their movements.
(3) Both plants and trees bear fruit in different seasons so the hunter – gatherer’s needed to move to find different.
(4) Finally, they moved in search of water because of some lakes or rivers being seasonal.
(5) They may also have travel to meet friends and relatives.

Now -a-days, we do not travel in search of food and water but we travel to meet our friends and relatives. We also travel to reach our schools, our places of work, people travel for trade, business,  leisure and several other reasons.

4.  What tools would you use today for cutting fruits. What would they be made of.
Ans : We use knife, cutter etc to cut fruits.These can be made up of different metal such as copper, stainless steel, iron, etc.

5.  List three ways in which hunter – gatherers used fire (see page 18).Would you use fire for any of these purpose today.
Ans :
  The ways in which hunter – gatherers used fire were :
(1) As a source of light
(2) To cook food
(3) To scare away wild animals
(4) To warm themselves up during winters.
Fire now a days is used to cook food and also to keep us warm,It is also used by many for religious purposes.

6.  Make two columns in your notebook. In the left hand column, list the food hunter – gatherers ate (see page 12).In the right hand column, list some of the food you eat. Do you notice any similarities/ differences.

Foods hunters- gatherers ate Foods eaten by modern men
Fruits, roots, nuts, seeds, leaves, meat, eggs. Processed food like bread, cake,pizza burger etc and unprocessed food like fruit.

  Difference between the two eating habits is in modern day .
We eat processed and cooked food whereas the early people did not cook their food. They ate everything raw.

7.  If you had natural pebble like the ones shown on page 14. What would you use it for.
Ans :
  If we had such natural pebbles, we would like to use for cutting meat and bone, chop fruit and roots.

8List two tasks that are performed by both men and women at present. List another two that are performed only by women and two that are performed only by men.
 Ans :
  Two common task that men and women can do like are :
(1) Teaching                 (2) Office jobs
(3) Driving                    (4) Pilot
-Two tasks that are performed by only men.
  (1) Mining                    (2) Working in shipyard.
-Two tasks that are performed by only women
  (1) Nursing                  (2) Looking after home and health.