1.  What did hunter – gatherers do to get their food.
Ans :  The hunter – gatherers hunted animals, caught fish and birds, gathered fruits, roots, nuts, seeds, leaves, stalks and eggs indoor to get their food.

2.  Name the types of tools used by the hunter – gatherers.
Ans :
    Tools of stone, wood and bone.

3.  How did the stone tools help the hunter – gatherers.
Ans :
  Hunter – gatherers used some of the stone tools to cut meat and bone, scrape bark (from trees) and hides (animal skins), chop fruits and roots some were used  as  handles of bones or wood. Some were used to make spears and arrows for hunting. Other tools were used to cut wood.

4.  How do we know where these factories were.
Ans :  Usually, we find blocks of stone, tool that were made and perhaps discard because they were not perfect, and chips of waste stone left behind at these sites.

. What were the two techniques that were used to make stone tools.

Ans :  The two techniques that were used to make tools were :   
Hand ,  Another stone, which was used as a hammer was held in another hand. The second stone was used to strike off flakes from the first, till the required shape was obtained.


(1)  Stone on stone techniques:  In this technique the pebbles from which the tools was to be made was held in one hand and another stone which was used as hammer was held in the other hand .

(2)  Pressure flaking technique : In this technique the core was placed on a firm surface.The hammer stone was used on a piece of bone or stone that was placed on the core, to remove flakes that could be shaped into tools.

6.  Define the followings:

(1) Factory sites: - Places where stone was found and where people made tools are known as factory sites.

(2) Habitation: - Cum –factory site – factory sites where people lived for longer spells of time are called habitation         cum – factory.

(3) Palaeolithic: - The part of history extending from 2 million years ago to about 12000 years ago is called the              Paleolithic.

(4) Mesolithic period: - The part of history extending from about 12000 years ago to about 10000 years ago is               called the Mesolithic period.

(5) Microliths: Stone tools of the Mesolithic period are called Microliths.

(6) Hunter – gatherers: - People who lived in the subcontinent about two million years ago and who hunted wild        animals, caught fish and birds, gathered food to eat were the Hunter – Gatherers.

(7) Neolithic : – The next stage from about 10000 years ago is known as the Neolithic.

7.  Fill in the blanks:

(1) Habitation refers to the place where people lived.

(2) Stone tools were made using different techniques.

(3) Grasslands developed in many areas due to change in climate around 12000 years ago.

(4) Many old caves have paintings on their walls.

(5) Hunter gatherers lived around two million years ago.

Write the correct answers:

 (1) Some river are perennial while other are  seasonal .

(a) seasonal                             (b) natural
(c) manmade                           (d) disappearing

(2) The sites where hunter – gatherers lived were  close to forest.

(a) on top hills                         (b) close to water
(c) close to forest                    (d) on top of mountain

(3) A method of making stone tool is  pressure flaking.

(a) habitation                            (b) hunting
(c) herding                                 (d) pressure flaking

(4) Tools in Hunsgi were made of  lime stone.

(a) lime stone                         (b) wood
(c) bone                                    (d) sticks

(5) Many old painting show  wild animals.

(a) wild animals                      (b) rivers
(c) mountains                          (d) food