I.  Complete the following statement by selecting the correct alternative given below each statement:

(1)   In the mid-18th century human energy was replaced by steam energy .

(a) Steam Energy                        (b) Water Energy
(c) Electrical Energy                  (d) Wind Energy

(2)  The Cotton Gin was invented by Eli  Whitney .

(a) John Kay                                   (b) Eli Whitney
(c) Richard Arkwright                  (d) Samuel Crompton

(3)  The European country which became famous as the “workshop”of the world was England.

(a) England                   (b) Germany
(c) France                     (d) Spain

(4)  Sir Humphry Davy’s invention that ensured safety to the miners working in coal mines was Safety Lamp.

(a) Flying Shuttle                    (b) Power Loom
(c) Safety Lamp                       (d) Water Frame

II.  Answer each of the following questions in one sentence:

(1)   What do you understand by “Domestic system “?
Ans : 
Domestic system means the goods that  were produced on a small scale.This was done with the help of hand operated machines according to the needs of people in the local markets.

(2)   Who was responsible for starting the age of steam?
Ans : 
James Watt was responsible for starting the age of steam.

(3)   Name the machine that could spin fine and stronger threads?
Ans :
  The Mule invented by Samuel Crompton could spin fine and stronger threads.

(4)  What are the two major stages involved in the transformation of raw cotton into finished cloth?
Ans : 
The two major stages involved in the transformation of raw cotton into finished cloth are spinning and weaving.

(5)  Who invented the system of crop rotation?
Ans : 
Townshend invented the system of crop rotation.

III.  Answer the following questions in two sentences each:

(1)  How did the Enclosure Movement provide labour to industries?

(1) There was a large scale immigration of  people from the other European countries either to avoid religious persecution or to find employment.
(2) At the same time a large number of landless farmers from the villages went to the towns in search of jobs as they lost the work due to the Enclosure Movement.       

(2)  What was the contribution of Jethro Tull in the field of Agriculture?
Ans :

(1) Jethro Tull was the one who started the scientific cultivation of the crops.
(2) He invented the seed drill and the  horsepower hoeing machine for cultivation.

(3)  How did geographical location help England to lead the Industrial Revolution?
Ans :

(1) England was not bothered about  the wars and the political upheavals of Napoleonic conflicts, so the conditions  remained stable.
(2) The humid climate of England was a plus point for the establishment of the textile factories.

(4)  State the use of Davy’s Safety Lamp for coal miners.
Ans :

(1) Davy invented a safety lamp to ensure the safety of the miners working in the coal mines.
(2) The safety lamp issued a warning to the miners when the level of carbon dioxide in the mine would increase and if there was any danger to their lives.

IV.   Give reasons for the following sentences:

(1)  The Industrial Revolution left a permanent mark on  the society.
Ans :

(1) The  life of the people changed drastically in the 18th century.
(2) The  wealth of the people increased and nations started getting national identities.

(2)  England was able to fight successfully with her enemies.
Ans : 
England could do this due to :
(1)  Her  economic stability
(2) The changes that took place in  the English industries.
(3)The method used by them to earn their living and earn wealth.

(3)  Industrialisation of England was brought about at the cost of her colonies?
Ans :

(1) According to this policy, a large number of countries in Asia and Africa were captured by the Imperialistic European countries and changed them into their colonies.
(2) These colonies played a double role, raw materials would be purchased cheaply from the colonies and also they were a market for the finished goods.

(4)  The introduction of the railways in India gave a death – blow to the Indian economy.
Ans :

(1) It became expensive to transport Indian goods through the railways as they had to pay a high charge for it .
(2) So the prices of the Indian goods increased which in turn decreased the demand for them.

V.    Answer the following questions in four sentences:

(1)  British industrialisation was brought about at the cost of India. Explain.
Ans :

(1) A large number of traditional and craft industries had to be shut down.
(2) A good number of natives lost their original culture and their political freedom.
(3) It also led large scale poverty among the Indians.
(4) A large number of the unemployed artisans were now forced to go back to agriculture.

 (2)  Write any four positive effects of Industrial Revolution of European countries? (Choose any 4) .Ans :
(1) The invention of the railways and waterways increased the mobility of the people and the goods.
(2) The scientific cultivation increased the quality and the quantity of the food grains.
(3) Since  goods were produced with machines there was a  large scale  increase in production.
(4) It increased the living standard of the people and made their life more comfortable than before.
(5) The expansions of the banking and credit facilities also  increased the circulation of money.
(6) The use of different sources of energy reduced the physical work of the people

(3)  Why did Industrial Revolution first begin in England? (Choose any 4) .
Ans :

(1) The humid climate of England was favourable for the growth of the textile factories.
(2) The huge amount of capital from trade in India and America had enabled them to invest in establishing the machinery and buildings.
(3) England had abundant deposits of natural resources like coal, iron and mineral fuels.
(4) A large number of landless farmers from the villages migrated to towns in search of jobs.
(5) England had a  number of people with scientific knowledge that  led to the invention of machines.

(4)  How did Industrial Revolution create environmental problems?  (Choose any 4).
Ans :

(1) Pollution became big problem due to the steam engines and the industries.
(2) The invention of more cotton textile industries also contributed to the environmental problem.
(3) Pollution increased because of more bad conditions within industrialized cities.
(4) Air and water pollution soon increased with burning of coal and domestic waste.
(5) The people in the cities suffered from water borne diseases and from air pollution.