Short answers :
(1) Who popularised the term Industrial Revolution in order to describe England’s economic development.
Ans : The British economic thinker Arnold Toynbee popularised the term Industrial Revolution.
(2) Which country was gifted abundantly with deposits of natural resources like coal, iron and mineral fuels?
Ans : England was gifted abundantly with deposits of natural resources like coal, iron and mineral fuels.
(3) During which century did the transport industry develop?
Ans : During the 18th century the transport industries developed.
(4) Who discovered a new process of road building during the last half of the 18th century?
Ans : John Mac Adam discovered a new process of road building during the last half of the 18th century.
(5) When was the first canal dug from Worsely to Manchester?
Ans : In 1761 .the first canal was dug from Worsely to Manchester.
(6) When was first railway line laid between Manchester and Liverpool?
Ans : In 1830 the first railway line was laid between Manchester and Liverpool.
(7) What did Robert Fulton name his first steam boat?
Ans : He named his first steam boat as Clermont.
(8) Who laid the first railway line in India?
Ans : Lord Dalhousie in year 1853 laid the first railway line in India.
(9) What is termed as Agricultural Revolution?
Ans : The change in the condition of the cultivation of land is termed as the Agricultural Revolution.
(10) What was the importance of the system of crop rotation?
Ans : In the system of crop rotation as different crops were grown alternatively the fertility of land was maintained.
(11) What popularised the policy of imperialism among the European Nations?
Ans : The Industrial Revolution popularised the policy of imperialism among the European Nations.
(12) Which country was now referred to as “workshop of the world”?
Ans : England was referred as “workshop of the world”.
(13) What led to the consequence of wealth in the hands of few capitalist?
Ans : The factory system led to the consequence of wealth in the hands of few capitalist.
(14) Which country is referred to as the “Mother of the Industrial Revolution”?
Ans : England is referred to “Mother of the Industrial Revolution”.
Long answers :
(1) Write any four negative effects of Industrial Revolution on European country?
(1) Men, women and children were compelled to work in the factories under unhygienic and very bad conditions.
(2) The workers had become just like machines ,they did not have much liberty and had to work continuously.
(3) The factory owner had only one aim and that was to increase his profits.
(4) The workers worked for long hours in the factories even for low wages.
(2) Child labour increased as a result of the Industrial Revolution. Explain.
(1) Small children were very often preferred by the owners, because their small fingers could easily operate the machines easily.
(2) Work hours would often be 10 to 14 hours with hardly any breaks during the shift.
(3) Children were often sent into the mines since they could be easily sent down into the mines .
(4) They were considered as unskilled workers and so they could be employed for a very low salary .
(5) This was profitable for the owners who preferred them rather than adult workers.
(3) How did the Industrial Revolution adversely affect the colonies of Asia and Africa?
(1) Raw material was purchased at cheaper rate and finished products were sold at higher rates in colonial markets. (2) A large number of natives lost their original culture the colonial people lost their political freedom.
(3) Large number of artisans and craftsman became unemployed as their industries closed down.
(4) A large number of natives from African countries were forced to work as slaves on the plantations of the European Masters.
(4) What was the condition of the children working in factories?
(1) The environment affected the children as the factories put out smoke and toxins.
(2) Children spent most of their working hours at the machines with little time for fresh air or exercise,
(3) Children were often sent into the mines since they could be easily sent down.
(4) They were considered as unskilled workers and so they could be employed for very low wages.
(5) Even part of the holiday on Sunday was spent cleaning the machines.
Fill in the blanks:
1) During the second half of the 18th century economic transformation were taking place in England .
2) England was able to fight successfully with her enemies in Europe mainly due to her Economic stability.
3) A domestic system of protection existed before the Industrial Revolution .
4) The new age called “Steam age “was inaugurated by James Watt .
5) The Industrial Revolution first began in England .
6) The humid climate was favourable for the establishment of the textile factories in England .
7) In Europe the landless farmers lost their work due to the Enclosure Movement.
8) England had accumulated a vast amount of capital out of her growing trade with America .
9) James Watt improvised the steam engine of Thomas Newcomen .
10) The spinning process involves separation of cotton from the Seeds.
11) Jethro Tull started the scientific cultivation of Crops .
12) The factory system led to the concentration of wealth in the hands of a few Capitalists.