I.   Answer the following questions in one sentence each:

1.  When did Aurangzeb pass away?
Aurangzeb passed away in the year 1707.

2.  Which was the new power emerging in the second half of the eighteenth century?
Britain was the new power emerging in the second half of the eighteenth century.

3.  How did Britain conquer India?
Ans: British originally came as a small trading company and then acquired territories.

4.  From whom did East India company acquire a charter?
In 1600, the East India company acquired a charter from the ruler of England Queen Elizabeth I.

5.  What did the charter grant to East India company?
With charter company could venture across the oceans ,looking for new lands from which it could buy goods at a cheap price and carry them back to Europe to sell at higher prices.

6.  What do you mean by mercantile trading companies?
Ans: Mercantile trading companies are those that makes profits primarily through trade,buying goods cheap and selling them at higher prices.

7.  How did the first English ship sail to Indian ocean?
The first English ship sailed  down the west coast of Africa,round the cape of Good hope,and crossed the Indian ocean.

8.  Who discovered sea route to India?
Vasco-Da- Gama , a Portuguese explorer discovered this sea route to India in 1498.

9.  Which products had big market in Europe?
The fine qualities of cotton and silk produced , pepper, cloves, cardamom and cinnamon had big market in Europe.

10.  What was done in order to stop competitors from trading?
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries they regularly sank each others ships,blockaded routes and prevented rival ships from moving with supplies of goods.

11.  Why it was difficult to separate trade from politics?
The efforts to fortify settlements and carry on profitable trade led to intense conflict with local rulers.The company found it difficult to separate trade from politics.

12.  How did the factory operate at the bank of river Hugli?
This river was the base from where company traders operated,the factory had warehouse where goods were stored,it also included administrative block as business expanded company persuaded merchants to settle near the factory.

13.  What do you mean by farman?
Farman was the right granted by Aurangzeb to company the right to trade duty free.

14.  Why did the Nawab of Bengal, Murshid Quli Khan protest?
Aurangzeb’s farman granted company to carry trade duty free but the officials of the company who were carrying out private trade were expected to pay duty.

15.  What claims were put by Nawabs of Bengal on East India company?
They claimed that company was depriving the Bengal government of huge amounts of revenue and undermining the authority of the Nawab .It was also refusing to pay taxes,writing disrespectful letters and trying to humiliate the nawab and his officials.

16.  Whose death made Sirajuddaulah the nawab of Bengal?
When Alivardi Khan died in 1756, Sirajuddaulah became the nawab of Bengal.

17.  When negotiations failed,how did Nawab act?
Once negotiations failed, the nawab marched with 30,000 soldiers to the English factory at Kassim bazaar captured the company officials,locked the warehouse disarmed all English men and blockaded English ships.

18.  Why did Battle of Plassey became famous?
The Battle of Plassey became famous because it was the first major victory the company won in India.

19.  What was the prime objective of East India company?
Ans: The prime objective of company was the expansion of trade.

20.  After the assassination of Sirajuddaulah who was made next nawab?
After the defeat at Plassey Mir Jafar was made the nawab.

21.  In which year Mughal Emporer appointed the company as Diwan?
In 1765,the Mughal Emporer appointed the company as the Diwan of the provinces of Bengal.

22.  What did it mean to be nawabs?
It means to acquire more power and authority.They were also “naboobs” an English version of the Indian world nawab.

23.  When was Battle of Buxar held?
Ans: Battle of Buxar was held in the year 1764.

24.  What do you mean by ‘Subsidiary Alliance’?
According to this alliance Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces.

25.  Why is Tipu sultan called ‘Tiger of Mysore’?
Tipu sultan stopped the export of sandalwood,pepper and cardamom through the ports of his kingdom and disallowed local merchants from trading with the company.He was ambitious ,arrogant and dangerous rulers who had a true spirit of patriotism.

26.  When did Tipu sultan die?
In the battle of Seringapatam ,Tipu Sultan was killed on 4th May 1799.

27.  Who were the famous maratha soldiers in late 18th century?
Ans:  Mahadji Sindhia and Nana Phadnis were two famous Maratha soldiers and statesmen of the late eighteenth century.

28.  Under whose leadership new policy of ‘Paramountcy’ initiated?
Under lord Hastings (Governor General from 1813 to 1823) a new policy of ‘Paramountcy’ was initiated.

29.  What was the claim in paramountcy?
The company claimed that its authority was paramount or supreme,hence its power was greater than that of Indian states.

30.  Who was the Governor General from 1848 to 1856?
Lord Dalhousie was the governor general from 1848 to 1856.

31.  Which kingdom were annexed by applying Doctraine of Lapse policy?
One kingdom after another was annexed simply by applying Doctraine that is Satara (1848) , Sambalpur  (1850 ), Udaipur (1852) , Nagpur (1853 ), Jhansi (1854), and Awadh (1856)

32.  Who played a significant role in company power expansion?
Warren Hastings (Governor General from 1773 to 1785) was one of the many important figures who played a significant role in expansion of company power.

33.  How were British territories broadly divided?
British territories were broadly divided into administrative units called presidencies.There were 3 presidencies Bengal, Madras and Bombay.

34.  When was new supreme court established?
Under the regulating act of 1773, a new supreme court was established ,while a court of appeal the Sadar Nizamat Adalat was set up at Calcutta.

35.  What was the job of collector?
His main job was to collect revenue and taxes and maintain law and order in his district with the help of judges,police officers and darogas His office was known as collectorate.

II.  Answer the following questions in 4 sentences each:

1.  How did Maratha power came to an end?
Marathas were in power in the country.In the first war that ended in 1782 with the treaty of Salbai,the second Anglo-Maratha war (1803-05)was fought on different fronts,resulting in the British gaining Orissa and the territories north of the Yamuna river including Agra and Delhi. Finally the third Anglo-Maratha war of 1817-19 crushed the Maratha power.

2.  How was the functioning of new system of justice?
From 1772, a new system of justice was established. Each district had two courts a criminal court (Faujdari Adalat) and a civil court (DiwaniAdalat). Mauvlis and Hindu pandits interpreted Indian laws for the European district collectors who presided over civil courts .The criminal courts were still under quazi and a mufti but under the supervision of the collectors.

3.  How was the army composition in Mughal empire?
The Mughal army mainly composed of cavalry (sawars trained soldiers on horseback) and infantry that is paidal (foot) soldiers .They were given training in archery and the use of the sword.The cavalry dominated the army. The rural areas had a large number of armed peasants.

4.  Why did the calvary from the company’s army decline from the 1820’s?
(a) The cavalry from the company’s army declined because the British empire was fighting in Burma,Afghanistan and Egypt where soldiers were armed with muskets and matchlocks.
b) The soldiers of the company’s army had to keep pace with changing military requirements and its infantry regiments now became more important.

5.  How did British develop military culture?
(a) In the early nineteenth century the British began to develop a uniform military culture.
(b) Soldiers were increasingly subjected to European style training drill and discipline that regulated their life.
(c) Often this created problems since caste and community feelings were ignored in building a force of professional soldiers.

6.  What led to fierce battles between the European trading companies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries?
(i) Between the European trading companies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries a strong battle occurred.The European companies sank each others ships,blockaded routes and prevented rival ships from moving with supplies of goods.
(ii)The trade was carried on with arms and trading posts were protected through fortification.

7.  How was the East India company responsible for the loss of revenue for Bengal?
Ans :
(i)The East India company tried to take more concessions and manipulated existing privileges.
(ii) Aurangzeb’s farman had granted only the company the right to trade duty free but the officials of the company were expected to pay duty.This they refused  to pay,causing an enormous loss of revenue for Bengal.

8.What were the key aspects of annexation of Indian states by The East India company from 1757 to 1857?
(i) The company launched a direct military attack on an unknown territory.
(ii)The company used a variety of political,economic and diplomatic methods to extend its influence before annexing an Indian kingdom.
(iii) The company appointed residents in Indian states and its officials began interfering in the internal affairs of Indian states.