I.   Complete the following statements by selecting the correct alternative given below each statement :

(1)  In Europe, the concept of the ‘Nation State ‘was first established in France.

(a) England                                                     (b) France
(c) Germany                                                    (d) Italy

(2)  The foundation of anew political ideology in the International politics was laid by American war of Independence .

(a) French Revolution                           (b) Unification of Germany
(c) American war of Independence    (d) Unification of Italy

(3)  In 1492,the explorer who discovered America was Columbus.

(a) Columbus                                        (b) John Cobot
(c) Albuquerque                                   (d) Henry the Navigator

(4)  By the Treaty of Paris (1783) Canada was transferred to England  from France.

(a) Germany                                        (b) France
(c) Italy                                                 (d) Spain

(5)  On 5th September 1774, the First Continental Congress was held at Philadelphia.

(a) Philadelphia                                   (b) Virginia
(c) Boston                                             (d) Connecticut

II.  Answer the following questions in one sentence each:

(1)  What is meant by a Nation State?
Ans : 
A Nation State can be defined as a sovereign state where the citizens are united by geographical, linguistic and cultural factors, which develops a sense of unity and identity among them.

(2)  What was the main clause of the Stamp Act of 1765?
Ans : 
By this Act, a duty was imposed on any kind of written document like,newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents and even playing cards.

(3)  Which right did the East India Company get due to Tea Act of 1773?
Ans : 
Due to the Tea Act of 1773, the East India Company got the monopoly to carry out tea trade with the colonies.

(4)  What did the Colonist declare at the First Continental Congress (1774)?
Ans : 
The Colonist declared their right to life, liberty and property.

(5) “The Battle of Saratoga was turning point in the American War of Independence why?
Ans :  After the Battle of Saratoga the colonial army with the help of the French forces was able to defeat the British army.

III.  Give two reasons for the following questions:

(1) British Administration realised the importance of establishing political control over the colonies.
Ans :

(1) The race for colonies began among the European countries.
(2) The natives opposed the British so a Governor was appointed in every colony. He worked as their representative.

(2) The Colonist in the thirteen colonies tolerated the discriminatory policies of England with respect to trade and commerce.
Ans :
(1) The colonist depended on England for their securities from France.
(2) They taught that France would attack them from Canada which was a French Colony.

(3) From 1763 the relations between England and the colonies became sour.
Ans :

(1) The British Parliament passed and imposed a lot of laws on the colonial people.
(2) They wanted to collect more revenue as England was facing a financial problem after the Seven Years War.

(4) The declaration on Independence is said to be the ‘noblest document in the history of Mankind’.
Ans :

(1) It simply gave the basic principles of democracy.
(2) Italso gave the people the rights to liberate themselves from a cruel government.

IV.  Answer the following questions in two sentences each:

(1) Explain the idea of ‘National State’.
Ans :
(1) A ‘Nation State’ has all the features of a state such as population,government territory and sovereignty.
(2) The historical and cultural background created the feature of  Nationalism and a sense of unity.

(2) Describe the incident of the Boston Tea Party (any 2) .
Ans :

(1) This incident took place when the colonial people went against the Tea Act of 1773.
(2) The British ship loaded with tea boxes was anchored in the Boston harbour.
(3) A group of colonists  dressed as red Indians entered the ship and threw the tea boxes into the sea.

(3) Write a note on second Continental Congress.
Ans :
(1) The second Continental Congress met on 10th May 1775 at Philadelphia and John Hancouck was elected as the president.
(2) The delegates adopted the Olive Branch Petition to be sent to king George III.to avoid a conflict, but he did not accept it.

V.  Answer the following questions in four sentences each :

(1) Why was the First Continental Congress (1774) an important event in the American War of Independence?
Ans :

(1) It was an important event as it was attended by the representatives of twelve countries.
(2) They signed a petition about the right to life liberty and property and sent it to King George III.
(3) They decided to boycott the British goods as the king did not respond to their petition.

(2) Why is the American War of Independence considered as an important event in world history?
Ans :

(1) It gave birth to an independent country of United States of America.
(2) It accepted the supremacy of the people which became the basis of the  state.
(3) It helped to strengthen the idea of the right of Revolution.
(4) It accepted the fact that the government had lesser powers than the Constitution.