I.  Fill in  the  blanks :  

1.  The Rajarajeshwara  temple  was  built  in  early  11th  century .

2.  Ajmer is associated with the sufi  saint  Kwaja Muinuddin Chisti .

3.  Hampi was  the  capital  of  the  Vijaynagara  Empire .

4.  The Dutch established  a  settlement  at  Masulipatnam .

II.  State whether true  or  false :

1.  We know  the  name  of  the  architect  of  the  architect  of  the  Raja-rajesvara  temple  from  an  inscription .

2.  Merchants preferred to  travel  individually  rather  than  in 

3.  Kabul was   major   centre  for  trade  in  elephants .

4.  Surat was  an  important  trading  part  on  the  Bay  of  Bengal .

Answers :

1.  True                2.  False             3.  False                  4.  False.

III.  Answer the following questions : 

1)  How was  water  supplied  to the  city  of  Thanjavur ?
Water  supply  for  the  city  of  Thanjavur  came  from  wells  and  tanks .

2)  Who lived  in  the  ‘Black towns’ in  cities  such  as  Madras ?
Mercants , artisans , native traders  and  craft-persons  lived  in  the  ‘Black towns’ in  cities  such  as  Madras .

3)  Why  do  you  think  towns  grew  around  temples ?
Towns grew  around  temples due to  the  following  reasons :
i)  Temples represents  a  very  important  pattern  of  urbanization .
ii)  A large  numbers  of  priest ; workers , artisans , traders   etc  settled  near  the  temple  to  cater  to  its  needs  and  those  of  the  pilgrims .
iii)  Rulers endowed temples  with  grants  of  land  and  money  to  carry  out  rituals , feed , pilgrims and  priests  and  celebrate festivals .
iv)  Temple authorities  used  their  wealth  to  finance  trade  and  banking .

4)  How important were craft-persons for the building and maintenance of temples?
Craft-person played an significant role in building and maintenance of temples by :
i)  The Panchalas or Vishwakarma community consisting of gold smiths, bronze smiths, blacksmiths, masons and carpenters were essential to the building of temples.
ii)  They also played an important role in the construction of palaces, big buildings, tanks and reservoirs.
iii)  Weavers such as the Saliyar or Kaikkolars were prosperous communities. They made huge donations to the temples.

5)  Why did people from distant lands visit Surat?
People from distant lands visit Surat because of following reasons :
i)  Surat was the gateway for trade with West Asia via the Gulf of Ormuz.
ii)  Surat has also been called the gate to Mecca because many pilgrim ships set sail from here.
iii)  It was cosmopolitan and people of all caste and creeds lived there.
iv)  The textiles of Surat were famous for their gold lace borders (zari) so there were several retail and wholesale shops selling cotton textiles.
v)  In Surat, there were numerous rent houses to take care of the needs of people from all over the world who came to the city.
vi)  There were magnificent buildings and innumerable pleasure parks.

6)  In what ways was craft production in cities like Calcutta different from that in cities like Thanjavur?
The craft production in Thanjavur was in form of inlay work in copper and silver white in Calcutta was in the form of cotton textiles, jute textiles and silk textiles.

7)  Compare any one of the cities described in this chapter with a town or a village with which you are familiar. Do you notice any similarities or differences?
Comparison between Surat and Delhi :

                        Surat                       Delhi
i) Emporium during the Mughal period due to the production of various goods.

ii) Gateway to west Asia due to the trade centre.

iii) Cosmopolitan city.

iv) Factories and warehouses.

v) Known for cotton textiles.

i) It was also emporium during the Mughal period.ii) Basically administrative town.

iii) Cosmopolitan city.

iv) Factories and   warehouses.

v) Known for business, trade and commercial pursuits.

8)  What were the problems encountered by merchants? Do you think some of these problems persist today?
Ans: The merchants had to pass through many kingdoms and forests. They had fear of being robbed while passing through forests. Hence they usually travelled in caravans and formed guilds to protect their interests. No, these kind of problems are not faced by merchants nowadays.