I.  Complete the following statements selecting the correct alternative given below each statement :

(1) The French General Napoleon was defeated in the Battle of Waterloo .

(a) Battle of Waterloo                             (b) Austro- Prussian War
(c) Franco-Prussian War                       (d) Battle of Saratoga

(2) The main opponent of the popular demands in Germany was Austria.

(a) Austria                               (b) Prussia
(c) France                                (d) America

(3) In July 1848, the German National Assembly met at Frankfurt.

(a) Frankfurt                                     (b) Philadelphia
(c) Boston                                          (d) Berlin

(4) For Bismarck , the greatest obstacle in annexing the Southern German States was France .

(a) Austria                                     (b) Prussia
(c) France                                      (d) Italy

(5) William I, the King of Prussia assumed the title ‘Kaiser’ in January 1871 .

(a) January 1789                             (b) January 1848
(c) January 1871                             (d) January 1850

II.   Answer the following question in one sentence each:

(1)  What does the term ‘Zollverim’ mean?
Ans :  
The term ‘Zollverim’ means Customs Union.

(2)  Why was there no free movement of goods from one part of    Germany to another?
Ans : 
Due to different custom duties in different part of Germany, there was no free movement of goods from one part to another.

(3)  Who ascended the throne of Prussia in 1861?
Ans : 
William I ascended the throne of Prussia in 1861.

(4)  Which three conflicts had completed the process of German Unification?
Ans :

(1) The war with Denmark (1864).
(2) The Austro-Prussia war (1866).
(3) The Franco Prussian war (1870) completed the process of Unification of Germany.

III.  Answer the following questions in two sentences each:

(1)  What were the demands of the educated class in the German Confederation?
Ans : 
The demands of the educated class were:
(1) Freedom of speech, press and education.
(2) They also demanded national unity and a constitutional government.

(2)  What decisions were taken at the Frankfurt Parliament in 1848?
Ans : 
The decisions taken at the Frankfurt Parliament in 1848 were:
(1) The National Assembly met in July 1840 at Frankfurt to deliberate on framing a constitution.
(2) A German Empire was to be founded as a close federation of more than thirty states.

(3)  What were the consequences of the Franco- Prussian War (1870-71)?
Ans :

(1) North German Confederation was formed.
(2) Napoleon III of France was defeated and he surrendered to Prussia.
(3) The Treaty of Frankfurt was signed in 1871 by which Alsace and Lorraine were given to Germany and paid huge war security and protection to Prussia.

(4)  What led to the Austro-Prussian conflict in 1866?
Ans : 
The Austro-Prussian conflict in 1866 took place because:
(1) There was a conflict for control of the two territories of the dukes.
(2) It was actually a conflict for the leadership of Germany.

IV.  Give two reasons for the following statements:

(1)  The Vienna Settlement disappointed the German Liberals.
Ans :   

(1) They were hoping for a united Germany but instead they got the German confederation of thirty nine states.
(2) The states in the confederation were different in size and strength from one another.

(2)  Prussia could not establish a powerful state before 1848.
Ans :

(1) The rulers after Fredrick the Great had no vision.
(2) They were inefficient.

(3)  Fredrick Williams IV refused to become Emperor of the German Federation.
Ans :

(1) He believed in the Theory of Divine Rights of the Kings.
(2) He was not ready to accept the authority from the common masses.

V.  Answer the following questions in four sentences:

(1)  Why was the Frankfurt Parliament of 1848 discovered?
Ans :

(1) The Frankfurt Assembly met in July 1848 at Frankfurt to deliberate on drafting a constitution.
(2) The German Empire was to be founded as a close federation of more than thirty states.
(3) It was to be headed by the King of Prussia as the Emperor with a Legislature of two Houses –to represent the states and the people.
(4) They asked Fredric William IV of Prussia to be the Emperor but he refused, thus the Assembly failed and had to be dissolved.

(2)  What were the views of Otto Von Bismarck regarding the German Unification?

(1) He believed in increasing the military strength of the Prussian  army.
(2) He believed that the Unification of Germany was to be achieved by the King of Prussia.
(3) He held the view that if Germany was to be united under Prussia, then Austria should be defeated.
(4) He felt that this was possible only through military conflicts.