1.  What were ring well used for.
Ans :
Ring wells were used as toilets in some cases, and as drains and garbage dumps. These ring wells are usually found in individual houses.

2.  How can you say that Mathura was a religious place.
Ans :
One could find Buddhist monasteries and Jaina shrines in Mathura. Mathura was also a place where lord Krishna was worshipped by the people.

3.  Why were Varanasi and Madurai famous.
Ans :
Varanasi and Madurai were famous for the manufacture of cloth.

4.  Mention the occupations of people who lived in Mathura.
Ans :
Goldsmith, blacksmiths, weavers, basket makers, garland makers and perfumers.

5.  Explain Shreni’s .
Ans :
Shreni’s is the association formed by the crafts persons and merchants. These shreni’s provided training, produced raw material, and distributed the finished product. Shreni’s also served as banks where rich men and women deposited money. This was invented and part of the interest was returned or used to support religious institutions such as monasteries.

Define the following :

(1) Jatakas                              –  Jatakas ere stories composed by ordinary people and preserved by Buddhist monks.

(2) Ring wells                         –  Rows of pots or ceramic rings arranged one on top of the other came to be known as ring wells.

(3) Arikamedu                       –  Between 2200 and 1900 years ago Arikamedu was a coastal settlement where ships unloaded goods from distant lands .

Fill in the blanks :

(1) The largest collections of iron tools were found in the megalithic burials.

(2) The plough share was used to increase agricultural production.

(3) Stamped red – glazed pottery was known as Arretine ware.

(4) Sangam  literature was popular in Tamil Nadu.

(5) Mathura became the capital of the Kushanas about 2000 years ago.

Tick the correct answer :

(1) The composition of sangam literature was about ________.

(1) 2500 years ago                                   (3) 2000 years ago √
(2) 1900 years ago                                   (4) 3000 years ago

(2) Arretine ware were named after a city in ____________.

(1) Mathura                                               (3) Varanasi
(2) Italy  √                                                 (4) Shreni’s

(3)  ___________ from adjoining areas provided food for people of Mathura.

(1) Farmers and traders                         (3) Weavers
(2) Blacksmith and perfumers             (4) Farmers and herders √

(4) In the northern part the village headman was known as _________.

(1) Grama bhojaka √                            (3) Adimai
(2) Vellalar                                             (4) Grihapatis

(5) Punch marked coins were made of ______________.

(1) Silver                                               (3) Gold
(2) Tin                                                      (4) Ivory