1. Describe the ways in which the Buddha tried to spread his message to the people.
Ans : The Buddha taught that life is full of suffering and unhappiness. This is caused because we have craving and desires. The Buddha described this as thirst or tanha. He travelled on foot, going from place to place, teaching people.He also taught people to be kind, and to respect the lives of others; including animals. He also taught about ‘ Karma’. The Buddha taught in the ordinary language ‘Prakrit’, so that everybody could understand his message.
2. Write whether true or false:
(a) The Buddha encouraged animal sacrifices.
(b) Sarnath is important because it was the place where the Buddha taught for the first time.
(c) The Buddha taught that karma has no effect on our lives.
(d) The Buddha attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya.
(e) Upanishadic thinkers belived that the atman and brahman were ultimately.
(a) – False (b) – True (c) – False (d) – True (e) – True
3. What were the questions that Upanishadic thinkers wanted to answers.
Ans : The Upanishadic thinkers wanted to know about life after death, others wanted to know why sacrifices should be performed. Many of them felt that there was something permanent in the universe that would last even after death. Their ideas were recorded in the Upanishads.
4. What were the main teachings of the Mahavira.
Ans : Mahavira taught a simple doctrine : men and women who wished to know the truth must leave their homes.They must follow very strictly the rules of ahimsa , which means not hurting or killing living beings.
5. Why do you think Anagha’s mother wanted her to know the story of the Buddha.
Ans : Buddha was the founder of Buddhism and he was wise. His stories could be inspirational and motivational to students. So, Anagha’s mother wanted her to know the story of the Buddha.
6. Do you think would have been easy for slaves to join the Sangha. Give reason for your answer.
Ans : Yes, slaves can join Sangha, when he got the permission of his masters. Buddhism doesn’t believe in casteism. Any person who was ready to act on Buddhist Rule can join Sangha.
7. Make a list of at least five ideas and questions mentioned in this lesson. Choose three from the list and discuss why you think they are important even today.
Ans : The ideas and questions mentioned in this lesson are
(1) The meaning of life (2) Karma
(3) Ahimsa (4) Life after death
(5) Ideas of the Upanishads
(1) True meaning of life : –
-Life is full of suffering and unhappiness. It is due to our unfulfilled desires. This is same even today as most people are not satisfied with what they have. They desire often but cannot be fulfilled.
(2) Karma :-
-The result of our actions called ‘Karma’, whether good or bad, affect us both in this life and the next .
(3) Ahimsa : –
-According to Mahavira Ahimsa means not hurting or killing living beings. We should not kill anyone even today.
(4) Life after death :-
-Thinkers wanted to know about life after death and they wanted to know why sacrifices should be performed.
(5) Ideas of the Upanishads :-
-The Upanishadic thinkers also felt that something was permanent in the universe and it lasted even after death.
8. Find out more about men and women who renounce the world today. Where do they live, What kinds of clothes do they wear, What do they eat. Why do they renounce the world.
Ans : Prepare the answer with the help of your subject teacher.
E.g Mother Teresa was one such lady who gave up worldly pleasure and decided to serve humanity, She had become a nun at very early age. The sufferings of the people, especially the people affected by leprosy, made her serve humanity. She started many homes, where the sick, old and infants were looked after. She wore simple clothes, a white cotton saree with a blue border and ate the same food as other.