1.  State whether true or false:

 (a) Harishena composed a prashasti in praise of Gautamiputra shri Satakarni.

(b) The rulers of Aryavarta brought tribute for Samudragupta.

(c) There were twelve rulers in Dakshinapatha.

(d) Taxila and Madurai were important centres under the control of the Gupta rulers.

 (e) Aihole was the capital of the pallvas.

 (f) Local assemblies functioned for several centuries in South India.

Answer :
(a) – False , (b) – False, (c) – True , (d) – False, (e) – False , (f) – True     .

2.  Mention three authors who wrote about Harshavardhana

Ans :  The tree authors who wrote about Harshavardhana were Banabhatta, Xuan Zang and Harshavardhana.

3.  What changes do you find in the army at this time.
Ans :
  The kings maintained a well- organised army, with elephants, chariots and foot soldiers.
(1) There were military leaders who provided the king with troops whenever he needed them.
(2) Military leaders were not paid regular salaries. Instead, some of them received grant of land. They collected revenue from the land and used this to maintain soldiers and horses, and provide equipment for welfare.
(3) These military leaders were known as Samantas. Whenever the ruler was weak, Samantas tried to become independence.

4.  What were the new administrative arrangements during this period .
Ans :
  The new administrative arrangements during this period were :
(1) Some important administrative posts were now hereditary. This means that sons succeeded fathers to these posts. For example, the post Harishena was maha- danda – nayaka, or chief judicial officer, like his father.
(2) Sometimes, one person held many offices. For instance, besides being a maha- danda- nayaka, Harshena was a kumar-amatya, meaning an important minister, and a sandhi – vigrahika, meaning a minister of war and peace.
(3) Besides, important men probably had a say in local administration.These included the nagarashreshthi or chief craftsman, and the head of the kayasthas or scribes.

5.  What do you think Arvind would have to do if he was acting as Samudragupta.
Ans :  If Arvind was acting as Samudragupta he would have to lead the army and successfully plan his campaigns in almost all parts of India, establish an efficient administration and a strong government, look after the welfare the people, here the complaints and decide cases.

6.  Do you think ordinary people would have read and understood the prashastis. Give reason for your answer .
Ans :
  Prashastis were written Sanskrit, and all ordinary people were illiterate and it would have been difficult for them to read and understand Sanskrit.

7.  If you had to make a genealogy for yourself, who are the people you would indicate in it. How many generations would you like to show, Make a chart and fill it .
Ans :
  Do it yourself with the help of your teacher.

8.  How do you think wars affect the lives of ordinary people today.
Ans :
  In the present times, the wars will be adversely affect the lives of the people eg:
(1) The economy of the country is disrupted and prices of the essential commodities will also rise.
(2) There can be large scale destruction, caused due to war
(3) Chemical welfare and use of nuclear bombs can affect not only the present generation but also many generation to come.