- Look at the picture I and recall the opening lines of the original song in Hindi. Who is the singer. Who else do you see in the picture.
Ans. The opening lines of the original song in Hindi are “Aye mere vatan ke logo, zara ankh mein bhardo paani, jo shahid hue hai unki , zara yaad karo kurbani. The singer is Lata Mangeshkar. In the picture we can also see pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur shastri and Indira Gandhi.
- In picture 2 what do you understand by the Company’s “superior weapons”.
Ans. The British East India company used “Superior weapons” means they had abilities to take advantage of the tensions among Indian princess. It also refers to better quality of weapons and power that they possessed.
- Who is an artisan. Why do you think the artisans suffered. (picture 3).
Ans. Artisan refers to a worker, skilled in a particular trade that involves making things by hand. The artisans suffered because the British people were importing goods from Britain, which was cheaper to them than what was made by the artisans. Thus the artisans suffered.
- Which picture, according to you reveals the first sparks of the fire of revolt.
Ans. Picture 7, reveals the first sparks of the fire revolt.
- Do you think the Indians were short sighted in their approach to the events of 1757.
Ans. Yes, the Indians were short sighted in their approach to the events of 1757. They were not at peace among themselves. So they took help from the English merchants to defeat their rivals. They only looked to immediate benefits but ignored its long-term consequences.
- How did the West India Company subdue the Indian princes.
Ans. The India princes were constantly at war with each other. The British East India company took advantage of this. They eagerly helped them in their wars against each other and subdue the Indian princes one by one. They adopted the policy of “Divide and Rule”.
- Quote the words used by Ram Mohan Roy to say that every religion teaches the same Principles.
Ans. Raja Ram Mohan Roy’s words are “Cows are of different colours, but the colour of their milk is the same” He used these words to explain that every teacher may have different opinions but the essence of every religion is the same and is based on similar principles.
- In what ways did the British officers exploit Indians.
Ans. The British officers exploited the Indians by levying of heavy taxes on farmers. They imprisoned them if they did not clear their arrears. They imprisoned them if they did not clear their arrears. They passed Regulation III that allowed them to imprison an Indian without trials in a court. They removed all the import duties. Those working under the East India company were exploited and given less wages. On this way the British officers exploited the Indians.
- Name these people.
(i) The ruler who fought pitched battles against the British and died fighting.
Ans. Tipu Sultan.
(ii) The person who wanted to reform the Society.
Ans. Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
(iii) The person who recommended the introduction of English education in India.
Ans. Lord Macaulay.
(iv) Two popular leaders who led the revolt.
Ans. (i) Nana Sahib Peshwa. (ii) Kunwar Singh.
- Mention the following.
(i) Two examples of social practices prevailing then.
Ans. Untouchability and Child Marriage.
(ii) Two oppressive policies of the British.
Ans. (a) No import duty on goods imported from Britain.
(b) Introducing Regulation III that allowed them to send Indian to jail without a trial in court.
(iii) Two ways in which common people suffered.
Ans. (a) The Common people lost their old jobs and lands.
(b) They were converted by the British.
(iv) Four reasons for the discontent that led to the 1857 war of Independence.
Ans. (a) Inadequate wages and slow promotions of those working under the East India company.
(b) The landlords lost their lands under new rules .
(c) They were asked to abolish their age-old customs.
(d) Brahmins came to know that the bullet they had to bite was greased with pig’s and cow’s fat.
So there were reasons for the discontent that led to the 1857. Was of Independence.