1. List the two differences between the houses described in the chapter and those that you studied about in chapter 3.
Ans : The houses in Harappa were either one or two storeys high, with rooms built around a courtyard. Most houses had a separate bathing area and some had wells to supply water. Whereas at Mehrgarh, near Bolan Pass remains of square and rectangular houses have been found .Each house had four or more compartments, some of which may have been used for storage.
2. Seals are used even today. Find out what they are used for.
Ans : Seals are used to stamp bags or packets containing goods that are sent from one place to another.
3. Describe the cities of Harappa.
Ans : The cities of Harappa were usually divided into two or more parts. The part to the west was smaller but higher and the part to the east was larger but lower. The first part has been called citadel and the second part the lower town.
4. What were the objects in Harappan cities made of.
Ans : The object in Harappan cities were made of stone, shell and metal.
5. Name the cities which had elaborated store houses.
Ans : Some cities like Mohenjodaro, Harappa and Lothal had elaborate store house.
Define the following :
(1) Specialist – A specialist is a person who is trained to do only one kind of work, for example, cutting stone, or polishing beads or carving seals.
(2) Raw materials – Raw materials are substances that are either found naturally (such as wood, or ore of metals) or produced by farmers or herders.
(3) Sealing – After a bag was closed or tied, a layer of wet clay was applied on the knot and the seat was pressed on it. The impression of the seal is known as a sealing.
(4) Plough – A tool used to dig the earth for turning soil and planting seeds was the plough.
(5) Rulers – People who planned the construction of special buildings in the city were the rulers.
(6) Citadel – Many of the Harappan cities were divided into two or more part to the west was smaller but higher. Archaeologists describe this as the citadel.
(7) Scribes – People who knew how to write were the scribes.
Fill in the blanks :
(1) The larger but lower part of the city was called the lower town.
(2) The bricks were laid in an inter-locking pattern and that made the wall strong .
(3) The childrens in Harappan cities used to play with terracotta toys.
(4) The alloy of tin and copper is called bronze.
(5) Great Bath has been discovered in Mohenjodaro.
Write the correct answers :
(1) Harappan cities were developed about 4700 years ago .
(1) 4700 years ago (3) 8000 years ago
(2) 1200 years ago (4) 10000 years ago
(2) Copper and bronze were used to make tools, weapons, ornaments and vessels.
(1) stones and shells (3) copper and bronze
(2) Gold and silver (4) Silver and stones
(3) As this region does not receive heavy rainfall some form of irrigation may have been used.
(1) Stones (3) tools
(2) rearing (4) irrigation
(4) Cotton cultivation started at Mehrgarh about 7000 years ago .
(1) 7000 years ago (3) 2500 years ago
(2) 6000 years ago (4) 4700 years ago
(5) Faience was used to make beads, bangles, earrings and tiny vessels.
(1) stones (3) Faience
(2) copper (4) metals